Gods & Goddesses Of The Philippines: Divine Beings In PH Mythology

Learn More About The Gods & Goddesses Of The Philippines

GODS & GODDESSES OF THE PHILIPPINES – In this article, you will learn more about the Gods and Goddesses of the Philippines.

The mythology of the Philippines weaves a captivating tapestry of beliefs and practices that originate from diverse indigenous tribes inhabiting the land. The varied and intricate geographical layout of the Philippines has led to distinct cultures and rituals, including the emergence of diverse assemblies of deities.

This article will explore the ancient Tagalog Pantheon, one of the numerous divine groups present in the Philippines, to uncover details about its gods and goddesses, their functions, and the tales surrounding them.

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Bathala – The Supreme Deity of the Ancient Tagalogs

At the pinnacle of the ancient Tagalog Pantheon stands Bathala, also known as Abba. Legend has it that Bathala appeared one day and asserted dominion over humanity, though the particulars of his origins remain a mystery.

Bathala is perceived as the creator of all things, dwelling in the loftiest realm known as Kaluwalhatian or the Sky.

Known for compassion and mercy, Bathala assumes responsibility for the sustenance and safeguarding of mankind. Nevertheless, he does not hesitate to chastise transgressors by dispatching thunder and lightning as retribution.

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Sky Deities – Lesser Gods and Goddesses of the Ancient Tagalogs

Bathala is accompanied by lesser divinities referred to as the sky deities, who assist him in supervising the world. Aminakable, the irritable deity of the sea, remains unwed due to his rejection by Maganda, a beautiful mortal woman.

Following his rejection, Aminakable vows vengeance on humanity by triggering colossal waves and fierce storms that result in vessel wreckage and human drowning.

On the flip side, Idianale is the goddess of labor and virtuous deeds. She is united with Dumangan, the god of a bountiful harvest, and together they nurture their two offspring, Anitun Tabu, and Dumakulem.

Anitun Tabu is the goddess of wind and rain, with the belief that rain brings her joy. The ancient Tagalogs believe that marrying during rainfall brings good fortune. Her brother, Dumakulem, is depicted as a robust and nimble hunter, also serving as the guardian of mountains.

Ikapati, the goddess of cultivated land, is famed for her benevolence in providing nourishment and prosperity. She is regarded as the most compassionate among Bathala’s deities. Ikapati bestows upon humanity the gift of agriculture, and the vitality of fields and livestock is attributed to her. Her spouse, Mapulon, is the god of seasons.

Legends say that Mapulon courted Ikapati over an extended period before gaining her acceptance. This tale is believed to influence the traditional courtship customs of Filipinos to this day. The couple bears a daughter named Anagolay, who is the goddess of lost items.

Upon reaching maturity, Anagolay weds Dumakulem, resulting in two offspring: Apolake, the god of the sun and protector of warriors, and Dian Masalanta, the goddess of love, conception, and childbirth. As a consequence of loving a mortal, she is banished to the mortal realm and vows to safeguard lovers.

Deities of the Underworld

The ancient Tagalogs uphold beliefs in an afterlife and the ultimate judgment of souls. Virtuous souls find solace in a realm known as Maca, experiencing eternal happiness, while the souls of the wicked are condemned to Kasanaan, where they endure ceaseless torment. Sitan governs Kasanaan and is aided by minor deities termed Sitan’s agents. Much like Bathala, Sitan holds the role of a Supreme God.

Manggagaway is potentially the most malevolent of Sitan’s agents. She is accountable for spreading illnesses and purportedly adorns herself with a necklace of skulls and a belt of severed limbs. Often masquerading as a healer, she inflicts ailments through her enchantments.

Conversely, Manisilat is the goddess of fractured households. It is said that she grows infuriated at the sight of a contented home and adopts the guise of a healer or a beggar to infiltrate homes unsuspectingly, fomenting strife between spouses.

Mankukulam is a malicious agent of Sitan who wanders through villages posing as a priestly healer, emitting fires at night. At other times, he lurks beneath victims’ homes, causing the demise of a household member.

Hukluban is another deity of Kasanaan, surpassing Manggagaway in power. She is a shapeshifter capable of assuming any form and can eliminate anyone with a mere hand gesture.

Importance of Philippine Mythology

Philippine mythology holds a pivotal role in the nation’s culture and history, reflecting the convictions, traditions, and practices of indigenous groups while offering insights into their way of life.

Despite foreign colonization, the Philippines has succeeded in safeguarding and transmitting its mythology to successive generations.

Moreover, Philippine mythology provides a wellspring of inspiration for writers, artists, and filmmakers. It furnishes a diverse array of characters, settings, and narratives to draw upon and reinterpret. Numerous Philippine mythological figures have already made appearances in various media forms, such as movies, TV shows, and comics.


In essence, the ancient Tagalog Pantheon stands as a single exemplar among numerous pantheons in the Philippines, each featuring its assortment of deities.

These divine beings mirror the convictions, practices, and customs of distinct indigenous tribes, granting insights into their lifestyles. Philippine mythology constitutes a cherished element of the country’s cultural heritage, with the potential to serve as a wellspring of motivation for future generations.

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